An Ode to the Code: Evidence for Fine-Tuning in the Standard Codon TableJed C. Macosko* and Amanda M. Smelser
The Standard Codon Table (SCT) records the correlation observed in nature between the complete set of 64 trinucleotide codons and the 20 amino acids plus 3 nonsense (i.e. stop or termination) signals. This table was called a frozen accident by Francis Crick, yet current evidence points to optimization that minimizes harmful effects of mutations and mistranslations while maximizing the encoding of multiple messages into a single sequence
. For example, a recent article with the running title “The best of all possible codes?” concluded that “evidence is clear” for the optimized nature of the SCT, and another study found that difficult-to-encode secondary signals are minimized in the SCT. Additionally, the initiating amino acid methionine has been found to minimize the nascent peptide chain’s barrier to exit the ribosome. Moreover, the symmetry in the SCT between 4- fold-synonymous and <4-fold synonymous codons has been explained in terms of minimizing mistranslation. In this paper, the hypothesis that the finely tuned optimization of the SCT originates in external intelligence is compared to the hypothesis that its fine tuning is due to the adaptive selection of earlier codes. It is concluded that, in the absence of metaphysical biases against this hypothesis, external intelligence better explains the origin of the SCT. Additionally, this hypothesis prompts lines of inquiry that, 50 years ago, would have accelerated the discovery of the now-known features of the SCT and that, today, can lead to new discoveries.Минимизация влияния мутаций (борьба с шумом) + оптимум по плотности контента. Авторы указывают на то, что если бы 50 лет назад гипотезу о дизайне генетического кода и тех, кто её продвигал в науке, не гнобили представители всесильного эвоматериалистического истеблишмента, то то, что мы знаем сегодня, мы могли бы знать намного раньше. Эволюционизм -- реальный стопор научной мысли.